Frontemare di Trieste
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Sezione di Trieste


TWICE: Techniques for Wide-range Instrumentation in Calorimetry Experiments

Spokeperson: Valter Bonvicini (INFN - Trieste)

Start of experiment: 2011

Duration: 3 years (2013)

Scientific objectives:

  • Development of advanced silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) with large area (∼ 10 sqcm) and dynamic range;
  • Application of the SiPMs to new materials (crystals and heavy glasses) for compensating hadronic calorimeters in HEP and Astroparticle Physics experiments.

Collaboration: Trieste, Udine, Milano-Bicocca, Messina, Napoli, Salerno, Roma 1.


  • Realization and characterization (in laboratory and with particle beams) of large area SiPMs ("QUAD" devices, fabricated by FBK - Trento, Italy) coupled to PWO crystals. Each QUAD SiPM has a surface of about 1 sqcm and a total number of pixels of 22500.
  • Design, simulation (with Geant4), realization and test on particle beams of "Shashlik" calorimeters with SiPM read-out. The calorimeters feature a gain-control system for the SiPMs. The read-out of the SiPM signals has been performed with both discrete and integrated (MAROC ASICs) front-end electronics.
  • Design and realization of ultra-wide bandwidth (3 GHz) front-end amplifiers for SiPM read-out.
  • Application of SiPMs to the read-out of WLS fibers coupled to large extruded scintillators for muon detectors/tail catchers.
  • Fabrication (with different technologies) and test with high energy particle beams of heavy glass cells ("ADRIANO"), with WLS and SciFi fibers coupled to SiPMs, for dual read-out calorimetry. Obtained in tes beam ca. 70 pe/GeV of Cerenkov light.


  • A. Berra, "Silicon photomultipliers as redout system for scintillating calorimeters", Proceedings of IFAE 2010, Il Nuovo Cimento C 33, N. 6, pp 239-241, 2010.
  • A. Berra, "Geant4 simulation of a scintillator-lead shashlik calorimter with a SiPM readout", Il Nuovo Cimento C 34, N. 5, pp 35-45, 2011.
  • A. Berra, D. Bolognini, V. Bonvicini, et al., "Silicon photomultipliers as a readout system for a scintillator-lead Shashlik calorimeter", IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 (2011) 1297-1307.
  • A. Berra, D. Bolognini, V. Bonvicini, et al., "A shashlik calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers with no amplification of the output signal", JINST 6 P10004 (October 2011).
  • A. Berra, D. Bolognini, V. Bonvicini, et al., "Silicon photomultiplier characterization for the EMR prototype of the MICE experiment", Nucl. Instr. Meth. A609 (2009) 129-135.


  • A. Berra: "A SiPM based readout system for shashlik calorimeters: status and perspectives", IEEE NSS MIC 2011, Valencia (Spain), 26/10/2011.
  • G. Pauletta, "Scintillator-based muon detector/tail catcher with SiPM readout", Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011, Chicago (USA) giugno 2011.
  • C. Gatto, "Dual-readout calorimetry for future lepton colliders in T1015 Collaboration", International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders LCWS11, Granada (Spain), 26-30 September 2011.
  • E. Vallazza: "Performance Of Shashlik Calorimeters Read Out By Silicon Photomultipliers", 12th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation - VCI 2010 - February 2010.
  • A. Berra: “Silicon Photomultipliers as readout system for scintillating calorimeters”, IFAE 2010: Incontri di Fisica della Alte Energie – Roma, April 2010.
  • H. E. Fisk: “T-995 Muon Detector/Tail Catcher R&D Using Strip-scintillator and Pixelated Photon Detectors”, 14th International Conference On Calorimetry In High Energy Physics (CALOR 2010), Beijing (China), May 2010.
  • P. Rubinov: “Electronics for testing with PPDs (aka SiPM)”, 14th International Conference On Calorimetry In High Energy Physics (CALOR 2010), Beijing (China), May 2010.
  • A. Berra: “Performances of the Silicon Photomultipliers as readout of scintillating Calorimeters”, Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Fisica, Bologna – Settembre 2010 (vincitore del premio "menzione speciale" fra le migliori comunicazioni sella sezione fisica nucleare e subnucleare).


  • F. Scarpino: “Test di un calorimetro shashlik con lettura a fotomoltiplicatore multianodo”, Laurea Triennale, Università dell’Insubria 23/02/2010.
  • A. Driutti: “Effects of leakage in total absorption calorimeter with optical read-out”, Laurea Specialistica, Università degli Studi di Trieste, gennaio 2011.



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